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Affinity audiences are used to target people based on topics that they are interested in, but without going to the same level of detail as an in-market audience (which is focused more on what people are researching and shopping for).
You should consider targeting affinity audiences if you are interested in expanding your target audience to users more likely to convert based on their interests, but you don’t want to go too narrow with your targeting.
Also, Google Shopping campaigns only let you target Affinity audiences and remarketing audiences, but not in-market audiences. (Don’t ask me why – I have no idea).
So for example, if a shoe shop brings out a new pair of shoes sporting a glittery crown, they might want to target the affinity audience of people who like news about celebrities and royals. They can do so with an Affinity audience. (As a comparison to other audience types, an in-market audience may be people searching for shoes, and a custom intent audience may be people searching for Prince Harry specifically).
With an Affinity audience, you can connect with target audiences that are consistent with the audiences you might buy for offline or TV campaigns.
This tip and many others are found at https://www.petramanos.com/category/tips/